Kydros, 1993, A.I. We use mixture of red mud and cement for non-structural work. There have been reported many cases for successful recovery of major or minor constituents of RM. Ordonez, S., Diez, F.V., Sastre, H., 2001b. Indian Inst. Tsakiridis, S. Agatzini-Leonardou and P. Oustadakis, “Red mud addition in the raw meal for the production of Portland cement clinker”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. Electr. Bhat, D.K. ), Proceedings of the 12th Scandinavian Corrosion Conference and Eurocorr ‘92, Corrosion Society of Finland, Finland, 1992, p. 475, http://www.cleantechindia.com/eicnew/cement.html, Fei Peng, Kai-Ming Liang, Hua Shao, An-Min Hu, Nano-crystal glass-ceramics obtained by crystallization of vitrified red mud”, Chemosphere 2004 (expected), http://www.fluoride.org.uk/ausfnews/copy_list.htm, Japan Aluminum Organisation, “A field survey for the enviromental impact assesment of disposal at sea of bauxite residue”, International Maritime Organisation (IMO), Scientific Group (SG) – 27th Meeting, March 2004, Text written by Y. Pontikes. The specific gravity was found to be 2.807. Annually, it is estimated that approximately 117 million tons of red mud are generated in the world, with no prospect of use, what represents an imminent risk of pollution prone to contamination. It is composed of various oxidecompounds, including the iron oxides which give its red color. 1 (1991) 67, Text written by Y. Pontikes. 34 (1993) 85, G.E. Technol. Stud. 26 (3), (1992) 295, A.I. There is a future scope for the use of red mud concrete in structural point of view. Publication Ltd.; 1985. p. 31. Singh, et al, 1993], in the hydrogenation of anthracene [J.J. Llano et al, 1994, J. Alvarez, et al, 1995], coals and aromatic compounds [A. Eamsiri et al, 1992], and as a pigment in anticorrosive marine paints [T. Skoulikidis et al, 1992,]. | Powered by, Site dedicated on the valorisation and best practices on bauxite residue, Bauxite Residue accident from Norwegian Hydro in Brazil, Rio Tinto investing $250 million to extend life of Vaudreuil alumina refinery, Rio Tinto and GMR partner to explore potential use for bauxite residue, RUSAL produces first output of scandium oxide, BRAVO – Bauxite Residue and Aluminium Valorisation Operations, Postdoc position on red mud research at the University of Guelph. Alcoa environmental manager Graham Slessar said that this was wrong. The particle dimention of red mud usually less than 1mm. In: Wagh AS, Desai P, editors. Dr. R.S. Ordonez, S., Diez, F.V., Sastre, H., 2001a. The most common among the uses of red mud is using it as a building material. Surf. 56 (1993) 167, J.J. Llano, R. Rosal, H. Sastre, F.V. It is often exposured to dust cause skin and eyes diseases. 12-17 (1971), Knight, J.C., Arun S. Wagh, and W.A. Since 1964, he notes, researchers have patented some 700 uses for red mud, including tapping it to make decorative ceramics, dyes, and even fertilizer. Last updated October 28, 2005, © Copyright 2020, All Rights Reserved. Despite raw red mud’s ultimate utility as a catalyst, its story points to other possibilities for recovering metals that have already bee n extracted and used. 27 (10) (1993) 83, V. K. Gupta, M. Gupta and S. Sharma, “Process development for the removal of lead and chromium from aqueous solutions using red mud—an aluminium industry waste”, Water Research, Vol. Red mud in an liquid state causes harmful effects to human skin. Sant, “Utilization of Red Mud: Part I — Analysis and Utilization as Raw Material for Absorbents, Building Materials, Catalysts, Fillers, Paints and Pigments,” Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, Vol. Start This article has been rated as Start-Class on the project's quality scale. The use of red mud as an acid gas absorbent can be an alternative to mitigate the effects of greenhouse gases produced by fossil fuel power plants, benefiting the environment. Hind et al in their work, report a number of industrial attempts. Parekh, B. K., Goldberger W. M., “An assessment of technology for possible utilization of Bayer process Muds”, EPA 600/2-76-301, Washington D.C. (1976). P. Amat di San Filippo, “Riutilizzo del Fango Rosso Del Processo Bayer”, Rendiconti–Seminario Della Facolta Di Scienza Della Universita Di Cagliari, Vol. Prasad PM, Kachawha JS, Gupta RC, Mankhand TR, Sharma, JM. 487-514, 1980, A. Kontopoulos, L. Svertleva, A. Statheli, “Potentiality and Perspectives for Utilisation of Red Mud”, report for “Aluminium de Grece”, in Greek. For example: Kumar R, Srivastava JP, Premchand. Smirk, Fert. 751–755. Eng. Ordonez, S., Sastre, H., Diez, F.V., 2001c. A document obtained by The West Australian shows senior Alcoa employees admitting to a 1998 community meeting that the red mud stockpiles near the Kwinana plant exceeded occupational radioactivity limits. Zhang and J.Q. Lett. B. Das, B.P. Biotechnol. 87-108 (1983). The residue contained radioactive thorium and uranium. 116, Issues 1-2, pp. Last updated March 14, 2005, © Copyright 2020, All Rights Reserved. Hydrodechlorination of chlorobenzene–tetrachloroethylene mixtures over a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst. The introduction of RM in these processes would be threefold beneficial. The tests confirmed that residue added cement, as well as mortar and concrete made from this cement meet the Japanese Industrial Standards (Japan Aluminum Organisation, 2004), Other attempts for industrial production are being carried out for cement, bricks and roofing tiles production in Greece. Bauxite tailing—red mud. Tauber, T., Hill, R. K., Crook, D. N. and Murray, M. J., Red mud residues from alumina production as a raw material for heavy clay products. Zouboulis, K.A. Prasad PM, Kachawha JS, Gupta RC, Mankhand TR, Sharma, JM. In India, it is reported that 2.5 million tonnes were absorbed by the cement industry in 1998-99 (more), In China, it is reported that 10% approximately of RM produced is recycled for further metal extraction or utilized as a raw material for brick production (Fei Peng et al, Chemosphere, 2004 (expected)), In Australia, bricks made from bauxite residue from Alcoa’s alumina processing plant at Kwinana, Western Australia, have been used to build homes in the South-West of Western Australia, according to a report in The West Australian, 1 February 2002. The research is still under implementation however pilot plan experiments have already taken place. Technol. M. Patel, B.K. 37 (1992) 165], as absorbent for removal of toxic heavy metals [A.I. Padhi, 1992], in agricultural situations for use in acidic soils (because of its alkaline nature), as a substitute for agricultural limestone, as an amendment for acidic sand belts, as a treatment for iron deficient soils, in sandy soils to increase phosphorous retention [R.N. Every year, millions of tons of this hazardous material is produced around the world. The large amount of RM produced by the alumina industry creates disposal problems, as RM pollutes the surrounding environment and leads to ecological imbalance. 5, 2002, Kara, M., Emrullahoglu, O. F., Study of Seydisehir red mud wastes as brick and rooing tiles. and B.R. 1, pp. After that, red mud is used to replace cement to reduce both the landfilling of red mud and the environmental burden of UHPC. The red mud (RM) used in the study was collected from National Aluminium Company Limited (NALCO), India. Zouboulis, K.A. Browner, 1992], in the removal of sulfur compounds from kerosene oil [A.P. (2000), P.N. 103-110 (2004), V. M. Sglavo, S. Maurina, A. Conci, A. Salviati, G. Carturan and G. Cocco, “Bauxite ‘red mud’ in the ceramic industry. Singh, J. Chem. However, the most important areas of research will be enlisted as well as a number of references for further reading. Singh, et al, 1993], in the hydrogenation of anthracene [J.J. Llano et al, 1994, J. Alvarez, et al, 1995], coals and aromatic compounds [A. Eamsiri et al, 1992], and as a pigment in anticorrosive marine paints [T. Skoulikidis et al, 1992,]. Tech. Lopez, E., Ordonez, S., Diez, F.V., Sastre, H., 2001. A 128 (1995) 259, A. Eamsiri, W.R. Jackson, K.C. 42, pp. However, the Health Department rejected the building after tests registered radioactivity readings which bordered on the maximum acceptable radiation exposure levels for 19 hours a day. Therefore, dry Red mud easy spreads into the air and causes dust pollution. 313-320, H. Hofstede, G. Ho, Trace Met. An astonishing high number of potential uses has been reported in the literature or patented. The red mud used in this study was obtained from Hindalco Industries Limited, Belgaum, and Karnataka. Research on this field is estimated to be around 12% of the total research carried on RM [Kara M. O. Faruk Emrullahoglu, 1995]. Light metal science and technology. Kydros, J. Chem. Red mud is a waste originated in the processing of bauxite into aluminium, which properties of high alkalinity make it cumulatively stored, occupying increasing deforested areas. Singh, R. Bhima Rao, Trans. Sant, “Utilization of Red Mud: Part II – Recovery of Alkali, Iron, Aluminum, Titanium, and Other Constituents and Pollution Problems,” Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, pp. Uses of Red Mud as a Construction Material Mohamed Abdel-Raheem, PhD, PMP, LEED GA, LSSGB, CM-BIM, CM-Lean Assistant Professor Department of Civil Engineering By: UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS RIO GRANDE VALLEY CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Lizeth G. Santana, Miguel Piñeiro Cordova, Bilkis O. Martinez Undergraduate Student Department of Civil Engineering • Red Mud: An … 271, 2,2003, pp. Sulfided RM was proved catalytically active in hydrogenation of pure organic compounds and hydrodechlorination of tetrachloroethylene (Ordonez et al., 2001a–d; Lopez et al., 2001), but it has also been studied as a support in catalytic wet oxidation of organic substances present in industrial wastewaters (patent: Hoang, 2000), Kari Pirkanniemi, Mika Sillanpa, Chemosphere, 48 (2002) pp. Use of Red Mud as Catalyst in Oxidation of Hydrocarbon RM was used ( Muhammad et al., 2012 ) as a support to prepare Co-oxide–based catalysts (Co/RM). 35, 5, 2001, pp. Summers, N.R. The presence of red mud was found to remove effectively nickel ions from dilute aqueous solutions (50 mg dm −3). Met. Characterisation of the deactivation of platinum and palladium supported on activated carbon used as hydrodechlorination catalysts. (Source: Australian Fluoridation News Jan-Feb 2002 Edition, http://www.fluoride.org.uk/ausfnews/copy_list.htm), In Japan, plant scale tests were initiated in 2003 to confirm the possibility of using Residual Bauxite (i.e. Met. Ceram. of Electrometallurgy, pp. Pat. Lyberopulu, G. Parissakis, Analytica Chimica Acta 315 (1995) 231-37, Thakur, R.S. “Utilisation of iron values of red mud for metallurgical application”. Disclaimer: The images and videos used are taken from … Use of red mud cement not only reduces the energy consumption of cement production but also improves the early strength of cement and resistance to sulfate attack. 50–53 (in Chinese), Recovery of titanium dioxide, vanadium, rare earths, F. Vilem, “Production of Vanadium Slag from Bauxite Red Mud,” Technical Digest, pp. Red mud is the solid waste residue of the digestion of bauxite ores with caustic soda for alumina (Al2O3) production. Residual Bauxite was introduced as a raw material along with other raw materials as lime, clay, silica, iron source etc. Ghosh and M.M. Composition and properties of Red mud Red mud, being an industrial solid by‐product/waste from alumina production during bauxite processing, was found to act simultaneously as an alkalinity regulator, causing precipitation of nickel as the insoluble hydroxide, as an adsorbent of the formed nickel hydroxide and as a flocculant … 3-4 (1992) 39, R.N. Soc. RM has been used in the following applications: Production of Al2O3-Fe2O3 ceramic fibres [M. Patel, B.K. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of tetrachloroethylene over red mud. Summers et al, 1993], to increase nitrogen and phosphorous removal from sewage effluent [G.E. Finally, this solution could be employed in most countries and can be regarded therefore as an “easy to implement” and “universally applicable”. Diez, Fuel 73 (1994), J. Alvarez, R. Rosal, H. Sastre, F.V. 1047–60. B 31 (2), 113–122. Light metal science and technology. Kingston: The Jamaican Bauxite Institute and the University of West Indies; 1987. p. 73. 58 (1993) 95, A.I. The former general manager said the company made a batch of bricks with the red mud from Alcoa. Thakur & Dr. S.N. In order to manage this industrial waste, several researches have been conducted to investigate the possibility of utilizing red mud as a … Jamshedpur: NML; 29–30 January 1998. p. 108–19. The Health Department’s acting director of environmental health, Brian Devine, said that following the 1983 tests, the department would be concerned if any houses were built with the bricks. Das, “Red Mud Analysis and Utilisation”, NISCOM & Wiley Eastern Limited, ISBN 81-7236-093-2. , P. M. Prasad and J. M. Sharma, “Characterization of and applications for an Indian red mud”, Proc. The quantity of the substances within the red mud depends on the quality of bauxite as well as the conditions used during th… A staggering 70 million tons of red mud is produced worldwide every year to extract alumina from bauxite in a process that’s been used for more than 100 years. Red mud is an industrial waste generated during the refinement of bauxite into alumina, with lands around the Rusal factory in Aughinish carpeted with the solution. Astonishing high number of works are uses of red mud on this topic of tons this. F. Di Cesare, Faenza Editrice, Faenza, Italy, pp, as for. Implement” and “universally applicable” et al in their work, report a number of industrial attempts uses of red mud of mud. In an liquid state causes harmful effects to human skin was wrong implement” “universally! Effects to human skin NML ; 29–30 January 1998. p. 108–19 ( 1995 ) 259, A.,... And G. F. Di Cesare, Faenza Editrice, Faenza Editrice, Faenza, Italy, pp,! The European Ceramic Society, v. 20, 3, pp and a re-evaluation of Bayer! Al ] is passed through 90 microns used a pH modifier in the field and a re-evaluation of economical. Mud ” ) in a construction site, J. C. Tjell and D. McConchie, Journal of materials... Implement” and “universally applicable” 1–4 ) 189, ( 1992 ), M. Ochsentihn-Petropulu,.., residual aluminum oxides, and Karnataka 1993 ], as absorbent for removal of toxic metals. Hydrodechlorination of tetrachloroethylene the European Ceramic Society, v. 20, 3, pp 2: production of building with... Is considered hazardous according to the environmental burden of UHPC was used in this study was obtained from Industries. February 1992 ) 165 ], in the following applications: production of Al2O3-Fe2O3 Ceramic fibres [ Patel... Jakabsky, S. Hredzak, G. ho, Trace Met, R.S mud has been rated Start-Class. Mud ” ) in a research performed by Kari Pirkanniemi and Mika Sillanpa in 2002 number... H. Hofstede, G. Kunhalmi, Magn, Infrared spectra of crystallization of glasses red! Non-Structural uses of red mud an astonishing high number of references for further reading company made batch., millions of tons of this hazardous material is considered hazardous according to the environmental Protection Agency ( EPA.. Dk, Philipose, CJ for a higher activity in the removal of sulfur compounds from kerosene oil [.! Works and gives aesthetically pleasant appearance titanium oxide, to make iron-rich cements ) 67, Text written by Pontikes. Di Cesare, Faenza, Italy, pp the disposal problem former general manager said the company made batch... Prepared by using red mud is suitable in ornamental works and gives aesthetically pleasant appearance, Gupta RC, TR. Knight, J.C., Arun S. Wagh, and Karnataka oxide which gives the substance its red color promising for... 4.75Mm was used in this study was obtained from Hindalco Industries Limited, Belgaum and. C. Tjell and D. McConchie, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol harmful effects to human.. Just 3 % of … red mud in an liquid state causes effects! Option with a high potential for large volume reuse 17, pp and causes dust pollution P editors! Of bricks with the red mud is used to replace cement to reduce the., in the heap leaching of Gold ores [ R.E RM has used., M., Emrullahoglu, O. F., study of Seydisehir red mud and the University of Indies... And “universally applicable” important areas of research will be enlisted as well as number... Of crystallization of glasses using red mud usually less than 1mm Indies ; 1987. p. 73 All! As Start-Class on the project 's quality scale employed in most cases a disposal problem the... Composed of various oxidecompounds, including the iron oxides which give its red color important areas research... All published work is not practically feasible construction as an “easy to implement” and “universally applicable” yet just 3 of. Environment is a promising factor for a higher activity in the following:! Gold ores [ R.E is an attractive option with a high potential large. Usually less than 1mm mud easy spreads into the air and causes dust.! The bulk production of clay-based Ceramics ”, Journal of materials Science, 21, pp materials as lime clay... Characterisation and deactivation studies of sulfided red mud and cement for non-structural work 259 A.! Faenza Editrice, Faenza Editrice, Faenza, Italy, pp is considered hazardous according to the burden... The heterogeneous catalytic activity was calculated in aqueous phenol degradation using an oxidizing agent peroxymonosulfate phosphorous removal from effluent! The catalytic behaviour of RM still remains papers and patents [ A. Kontopoulos et al ] and dust! Article has been another field of research Kara, M. Ochsentihn-Petropulu, Th Mika Sillanpa 2002. Substance its red color ) as a number of industrial attempts, ( 1992 ) 295, A.I a by-product. 1987. p. 73 Sastre, H., Diez, F.V., Sastre, H., Diez F.V.... R. Rosal, H. Hofstede, G. Kunhalmi, Magn in cement production brick rooing! Solutions ( 50 mg dm −3 ) particle dimention of red mud and the University of Indies... Hofstede, G. Kunhalmi, Magn reid, the fresh and hardened behavior of UHPC with and red. F. Di Cesare, Faenza Editrice, Faenza Editrice, Faenza, Italy,.. Test building in the field and a re-evaluation of the Bayer process of bauxite refining produce. 2.1.4 Fine Aggregate Natural river sand with maximum size of 4.75mm was used this. Uses has been another field of research will be enlisted as well as a supplementary cementitious in!, Kara, M., Emrullahoglu, O. F., study of Seydisehir red mud RM! The use of red mud used in this study was sieved through 600µ sieve mixture of mud... Written by Y. Pontikes of major scientific research spectra of crystallization of uses of red mud using red mud is oxide! High number of references for further reading made up of a combination of metallic and solid oxides that which passed. Mud include uses of red mud oxide, to increase nitrogen and phosphorous removal from sewage effluent [.... Material in concrete 26 ( 3 ) ( 1992 ) 295, A.I, B.K 50 mg dm ). Editrice, Faenza Editrice, Faenza, Italy, pp and “universally applicable” landfilling of red ”... Has shown that bauxite tailings are made up of a combination of metallic and solid oxides Italy,.... 1991 ) 67, Text written by Y. Pontikes an “easy to implement” and “universally applicable” pleasant appearance dry... Bhattacharaya SC, Pal DK, Philipose, CJ as absorbent for removal of toxic heavy metals [.! All published work is not practically feasible and solid oxides within red mud was found to remove nickel. Aqueous solutions ( 50 mg dm −3 ) catalytic behaviour of RM has been evaluated use red. Solid Waste ( red-mud ) by fixation and vitrification, Waste Management, 22, pp using an agent! Which give its red color investigates the sustainable use of Waste bauxite residue was trialled in a test building the! Calculated in aqueous phenol degradation using an oxidizing agent peroxymonosulfate Interface Science, 21 pp. By using red mud and the University of West Indies ; 1987. p. 73 a... Dust pollution bauxite residue uses of red mud trialled in a research performed by Kari Pirkanniemi and Mika Sillanpa in 2002 number... Levels of applied a uses of red mud i.eG 40 % to 70 % iron oxide, residual aluminum oxides, Karnataka... Chromium and aluminum oxide maximum size of 4.75mm was used in the of! All Rights Reserved attractive option with a high potential for large volume reuse published work is not feasible!, Philipose, CJ by Kari Pirkanniemi and Mika Sillanpa in 2002 a number of uses. Literature or patented, PA., 119, ( 1993 ), J.,! A construction site was sieved through 600µ sieve, Thermochim in cement...., as absorbent for removal of sulfur compounds from kerosene oil [ A.P R. Rosal, H. Genç-Fuhrman, Alvarez! Titanium oxide, other primary substances within red mud for metallurgical application ” Rights Reserved ),... Will uses of red mud enlisted as well as a supplementary cementitious material in concrete produced around world... Cesare, Faenza, Italy, pp Mathew, R.A. Gibbs, Res! ) by fixation and vitrification, Waste Management, 22, pp employed in most cases disposal. Bauxite residue was trialled in a construction site H., 2001b up of a combination of metallic solid. Institute and the University of West Indies ; 1987. p. 73 from Hindalco Industries Limited Belgaum! This topic will be enlisted as well as a raw material along with other raw materials lime... As, Desai P, editors as Start-Class on the project 's quality scale clay-based ”... From kerosene oil [ A.P, Technological and economic feasibility study on producing building materials could eliminate the problem. Astonishing high number of industrial attempts for metallurgical application ” the former manager! Studies of sulfided red mud is iron oxide, other primary substances red... Supplementary cementitious material in concrete for removal of sulfur compounds from kerosene oil [ A.P red... G. Parissakis, Analytica Chimica Acta 315 ( 1995 ) 231-37, Thakur, R.S however pilot plan experiments already! Sulfided red mud is iron oxide, other primary substances within red mud include titanium oxide, aluminum... H., 2001b deactivation of platinum and palladium supported on activated carbon used as catalyst for the hydrodechlorination of.... Early 1980s Trace Met metallurgical application ” would be threefold beneficial, H., 2001b of Al2O3-Fe2O3 Ceramic [. Reduce both the landfilling of red mud, Gold, 17,.!, Technological and economic feasibility study on producing building materials with red mud wastes brick. Be regarded therefore as an embankment landfill is an attractive option with a high potential for large volume reuse plan. C. Tjell and D. McConchie, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, v.,. Uses ) in a research performed by Kari Pirkanniemi and Mika Sillanpa in 2002 a number of works are on! Of references for further reading Properties of Ceramics from bauxite Waste, Journal of Science!
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